The National Assembly of the Republic of Korea, often referred to simply as the National Assembly or Gukhoe (국회) in Korean, is the legislative body responsible for making and passing laws in South Korea. As a crucial component of South Korea’s democratic system, the National Assembly plays a pivotal role in shaping the nation’s policies and governance. Let’s explore the structure, functions, and significance of the National Assembly in the Republic of Korea.

Structure of the National Assembly

The National Assembly is a unicameral legislature, consisting of a single chamber. It comprises elected representatives who serve the people of South Korea. Here are the key elements of its structure:

Members of the National Assembly

  1. Total Members: The National Assembly consists of 300 members.
  2. Election Process: Among the 300 members, 253 are directly elected by the people through a combination of proportional representation and single-member constituencies. The remaining 47 seats are allocated to proportional representatives, ensuring representation for smaller parties.
  3. Term Length: Members of the National Assembly serve four-year terms.
  4. Eligibility: To be eligible to run for the National Assembly, individuals must meet certain age and citizenship requirements.


  1. Speaker: The National Assembly is presided over by a Speaker, who ensures the orderly conduct of sessions and deliberations. The Speaker is elected by fellow members.
  2. Leadership Roles: In addition to the Speaker, the National Assembly has various leadership roles, including floor leaders of political parties and committee chairs.

Functions of the National Assembly

The National Assembly in the Republic of Korea performs a range of critical functions within the country’s democratic framework. Some of its primary functions include:


  1. Lawmaking: The Assembly is responsible for initiating, debating, amending, and ultimately passing legislation. This encompasses bills related to governance, society, and the economy.
  2. Budget Approval: It holds the authority to approve the national budget, ensuring that government funds are allocated appropriately.


  1. Government Oversight: The National Assembly plays a vital role in scrutinizing the actions and policies of the executive branch, holding government officials accountable for their decisions and actions.
  2. Investigations: It has the power to conduct investigations, summon witnesses, and gather evidence on matters of public interest or concern.


  1. Constituency Representation: Members of the National Assembly represent the interests and concerns of their respective constituencies, advocating for their constituents’ needs and aspirations.

Constitutional Amendments

  1. Amendment Proposals: The Assembly can propose amendments to the South Korean Constitution, subject to specific procedural requirements.

International Relations

  1. Treaty Ratification: It must ratify international treaties and agreements negotiated by the executive branch, ensuring that South Korea fulfills its international obligations.

Significance of the National Assembly

The National Assembly of the Republic of Korea holds significant importance for several key reasons:

  1. Checks and Balances: It serves as a critical check on the power of the executive branch, ensuring a system of checks and balances in government.
  2. Representation: Members of the Assembly represent diverse interests and constituencies, allowing for a wide range of voices to be heard in the legislative process.
  3. Policy Development: It is the primary institution responsible for formulating and amending South Korea’s laws and policies, reflecting the will of the people.
  4. Accountability: Through its oversight functions, the National Assembly holds the government accountable to the citizens of South Korea.
  5. Constitutional Role: It plays a fundamental role in upholding and amending the South Korean Constitution, the supreme law of the land.

In summary, the National Assembly of the Republic of Korea stands as a cornerstone of the country’s democratic governance. Its members diligently work to create, modify, and enforce laws that have a profound impact on the lives of South Korean citizens, contributing to the maintenance of a robust and functioning democracy in the Republic of Korea.