Henry VII (28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 22 August 1485 until his death in 1509. He was the first monarch of the House of Tudor. His reign marked the end of the Wars of the Roses, a series of civil wars that had ravaged England for over thirty years.
Henry was born in Pembroke Castle, Wales, the son of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, and Margaret Beaufort. He was a descendant of John Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, the fourth son of King Edward III. Henry’s father died when he was only two years old, and his uncle, Jasper Tudor, became his guardian. Henry spent his early years in exile in France, where he was educated by the Franciscans.
In 1483, Henry’s cousin, King Edward V, was deposed by his uncle, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who became king as Richard III. Henry and his uncle Jasper launched an invasion of England in 1485, and they defeated Richard at the Battle of Bosworth Field. Henry was crowned king on 22 August 1485.
Henry’s reign was marked by peace and prosperity. He married Elizabeth of York, the daughter of King Edward IV, and they had seven children together. Henry also established the Court of Star Chamber, a special court that was used to suppress dissent.
Henry died in 1509 and was succeeded by his son, Henry VIII.