King Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. He was the second son of King James VI of Scotland (later James I of England) and Anne of Denmark.

Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Scotland. He was raised as a Protestant and educated by private tutors. In 1623, he married Henrietta Maria of France. The marriage was unpopular with many of his subjects, who feared that it would lead to a return to Catholicism.

Charles became King in 1625 after the death of his father. He was a strong believer in the divine right of kings and clashed with Parliament over his attempts to raise taxes and to rule without its consent. In 1628, he signed the Petition of Right, which limited his powers.

In 1642, the English Civil War broke out between Charles and Parliament. The war lasted for six years and ended with the defeat of the Royalists. Charles was captured and executed for treason in 1649.

Charles was a controversial figure in his lifetime and remains so today. He is often seen as a tyrant who was responsible for the deaths of thousands of his subjects. However, he is also seen as a martyr who died for his beliefs.