Richard was born in Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, the eleventh child of Richard, Duke of York, and Cecily Neville. His father was the leading Yorkist claimant to the English throne during the Wars of the Roses, and Richard himself fought in several battles during the conflict.
In 1483, Richard‘s brother, King Edward IV, died suddenly. Edward‘s eldest son, Edward V, was only twelve years old at the time, and Richard was appointed as his Protector. However, Richard soon had Edward V and his younger brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, declared illegitimate and took the throne for himself.
Richard‘s reign was short-lived and unpopular. He faced opposition from many of the English nobility, who were unhappy with his usurpation of the throne. In 1485, Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, invaded England with an army of French mercenaries. Richard met Henry at the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485. The battle was a decisive victory for Henry, and Richard was killed.
Richard III is one of the most controversial figures in English history. He has been portrayed as a ruthless tyrant by many historians, but others have argued that he was a victim of circumstance. Regardless of his true character, Richard III‘s reign was a significant turning point in English history. It marked the end of the Wars of the Roses and the beginning of the Tudor dynasty.