King James II (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over these kingdoms.
James was born in London to King Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria of France. He was raised as a Protestant, but converted to Roman Catholicism in 1668. He became King upon the death of his brother, King Charles II, in 1685.
James’ reign was marked by religious and political turmoil. He attempted to promote Catholicism and to restore the power of the monarchy, which led to conflict with Parliament. He also faced opposition from his Protestant daughters, Mary and Anne.
In 1688, William of Orange, the Protestant Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, invaded England with an army. James fled to France, and William and Mary were crowned King and Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
James spent the rest of his life in exile in France. He died in 1701 at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. He is buried in the Church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris.